Thursday, 13 December 2012

Lecture 9: Identity

Lecture Summary


- To introduce historical conceptions of identity
- To introduce Foucault’s ‘discourse’ methodology
- To place and critique contemporary practice within these frameworks, and to consider their validity
- To consider ‘postmodern’ theories of identity as ‘fluid’ and ‘constructed’ (in particular Zygmunt Bauman)
- To consider identity today, especially in the digital domain


Theories of Identity

• ESSENTIALISM (traditional approach)
• Our biological make up makes us who we are.
• We all have an inner essence that makes us who we are.
• POST MODERN THEORISTS DISAGREE
• Post-Modern theorists are ANTI- ESSENTIALIST

Physiognomy 

Phrenology

Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso (1835 – 1909) – Founder of Positivist Criminology – the notion that criminal tendencies are inherited

 Physiognomy legitimising racism 

Art work 
Hieronymous Bosch (1450 - 1516) Christ carrying the Cross, Oil on panel, c. 1515 


Chris Ofili, Holy Virgin Mary, 1996    

Historical phases of Identity 

Douglas Kellner – Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and
Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern, 1992

- Pre modern identity – personal identity is stable – defined

by long standing roles
- Modern identity – modern societies begin to offer a wider range of social roles. Possibility to start ‘choosing’ your identity, rather than simply being born into it. People start to ‘worry’ about who they are
- Post-modern identity – accepts a ‘fragmented ‘self’. Identity is constructed



Pre-Modern Identity

Institutions determined identity:
Marriage, The Church, monarchy, Government, the State, Work


Pre-Modern Identity

‘Secure’ identities

Related institutional agency with vested interest
Farm-worker : Landed gentry 
The Soldier : The state
The Factory Worker : Industrial capitalism 
The Housewife : Patriarchy 
The Gentleman : Patriarchy 
Husband-Wife (family) : Marriage/ Church


Modern identity 19th and early 20th centuries

- Charles Baudelaire – The Painter of Modern Life (1863) 
- Thorstein Veblen – Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) 
- Georg Simmel – The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903)


Modern identity 19th and early 20th centuries



Gustave Caillebotte (1848 - 94), Le Pont de l’Europe, 1876 



- Baudelaire – introduces concept of the ‘flaneur’ (gentleman-stroller)
- Veblen – ‘Conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is a means of reputability to the gentleman of leisure’



Gustave Caillebotte (1848 - 94), Paris Street, Rainy Day, 1877 



Simmel
- Trickle down theory
- Emulation
- Distinction
- The ‘Mask’ of Fashion



Georg Simmel 


Edvard Munch, Evening on Karl Johan, Oil on Canvas, 1892 


‘The feeling of isolation
is rarely as decisive and intense when one actually finds oneself physically alone, as when one is a stranger without relations, among many physically close persons, at a party, on the train, or in the traffic of a large city’


Simmel suggests that:
because of the speed and mutability of modernity, individuals withdraw into themselves to find peace

He describes this as
‘the separation of the subjective from the objective life’



Post-modern identity

‘Discourse Analysis’

- Identity is constructed out of the discourses culturally available to us.
What is a discourse ?
- ‘... a set of recurring statements that define a particular cultural ‘object’ (e.g., madness, criminality, sexuality) and provide concepts and terms through which such an object can be studied and discussed.’ Cavallaro, (2001)


Possible Discourses

- Age
- Class
- Gender
- Nationality
- Race/ethnicity
- Sexual orientation
- Education
- Income







Discourses to be considered

- Class
- Nationality
- Race/ethnicity 

- Gender and sexuality

Class
Humphrey Spender/Mass Observation, Worktown project, 1937    

Martin Parr, New Brighton, Merseyside, from The Last Resort, 1983 - 86    

Martin Parr, Ascot, 2003 


‘ “Society” ...reminds one of a particularly shrewd, cunning and pokerfaced player in the game of life, cheating if given a chance, flouting rules whenever possible’


Nationality 


Martin Parr, Sedlescombe, from Think of England, 2000-2003 



Martin Parr, Think of Germany, Berlin, 2002 



Alexander McQueen, Highland Rape collection, Autumn/Winter 1995 - 6    

‘Much of the press coverage centred around accusations of misogyny because of the imagery of semi-naked, staggering and brutalized women, in conjunction with the word “rape” in the title. But McQueen claimed that the rape was of Scotland, not the individual models, as the theme of the show was the Jacobite rebellion’.



Vivienne Westwood, Anglomania collection, Autumn/Winter 1993 - 4    

Race/ Ethnicity 


Chris Ofili No Woman, No Cry 1998    

Chris Ofili, Captain Shit and the Legend of the Black Stars , 1994 


Gender and sexuality 


‘Edmund Bergler, an American psychoanalyst writing in the 1950s, went much further, both in condemning the ugliness of fashion and in relating it to sex. He recognised that the fashion industry is the work not of women, but of men. Its monstrosities, he argued, were a “gigantic unconscious hoax” perpetrated on women by the arch villains of the Cold War –male homosexuals (for he made the vulgar assumption that all dress designers are “queers”). Having first, in the 1920s, tried to turn women into boys, they had latterly expressed their secret hatred of women by forcing them into exaggerated, ridiculous, hideous clothes’



Masquerade and the mask if femininity 



Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Stills, 1977 - 80    



The Postmodern condition: Liquid Modernity and Liquid Love 


Post modern theory:
- Identity is constructed through our social experience.
- Erving Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959)
- Goffman saw life as ‘theatre’, made up of ‘encounters’ and ‘performances’
- For Goffman the self is a series of facades

Zygmunt Bauman 

Identity (2004)
Liquid Modernity
(2000)
Liquid Love (2003)
‘Yes, indeed, “identity” is revealed to us only as something to be invented rather than discovered; as a target of an effort, “an objective”’







‘In airports and other public spaces, people with mobile-phone headset attachments walk around, talking aloud and alone, like paranoid schizophrenics, oblivious to their immediate surroundings.
Introspection is a disappearing act. Faced with moments alone in their cars, on the street or at supermarket checkouts, more and more people do not collect their thoughts, but scan their mobile phone messages for shreds of evidence that someone, somewhere may need or want them.’


Theodore Levitt, The Morality (?) of Advertising,1970


‘We use art, architecture, literature, and the rest, and advertising as well, to shield ourselves, in advance of experience, from the stark and plain reality in which we are fated to live’. 

Postmodern Identity 

Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650), Enlightenment Philosopher:
‘I think therefore I am’ (Discourse on Method, 1637)

Barbara Kruger, I shop therefore I am, 1987,    



“The typical cultural spectator of postmodernity is viewed as a largely home centred and increasingly solitary player who, via various forms of ‘telemediation’ (stereos, game consoles, videos and televisions), revels in a domesticated (i.e. private and tamed) ‘world at a distance"

Darley (2000), Visual Digital Culture, p.187    

Wednesday, 12 December 2012

Responsive brief/ Douwe Egberts: Recipes


Ingredients:
60ml Douwe Egberts Pure Gold coffee
2 scoops of vanilla ice cream
3 ice cubes
Chocolate flake

Preparation:
Put the coffee, ice cream & ice cubes into a blender. 
Blend on full power for 15 seconds. 
Pour into a glass & serve with a straw & a generous sprinkling of crushed flake!



Ingredients:
60 ml coffee - we recommend Douwe Egberts Cafetiere Blend
20 ml hazelnut syrup (± 1,5 tablespoon)
60 ml hot milk
Whipped cream
Nougatine

Preparation:
Pour the hazelnut syrup into a mug.
Pour the hot coffee in the cup & give it a stir.
Add the hot milk.
Finish it with whipped cream and a dusting of cocoa powder . Delicious!



Ingredients:
60 ml coffee - we recommend Douwe Egberts Dark Roast
2 teaspoons chocolate chips
60ml hot milk
Whipped cream
Cocoa powder

Preparation:
Place chocolate chips into your mug. 
Add the hot coffee & stir until the chocolate chips start to melt.  Top up your mug with the hot milk & finish with whipped cream & a dusting of cocoa powder.



Ingredients:
1 mug Senseo® Dark Roast coffee
1.5 tablespoons cinnamon syrup
Whipped Cream
Ground Cinnamon

Preparation:
Pour the cinnamon syrup into a large mug. 
Add the hot coffee & give it a stir. 
Sprinkle in some cinnamon & top with whipped cream.



Ingredients:
Cold water (dependent on glass size)
3 - 5 Ice cubes
Milk (to taste)
Sugar (to taste)
1 tsp of your favourite flavour of The Flavour Collective coffee


Preparation:
1. Put some cold water in a tall glass (about fifth of the capacity)
2. Add 1 teaspoon of your favoured The Flavour Collective coffee and 1 teaspoon of sugar (optional - you can vary the amount of sugar to taste)
3. Use a milk frother to blend the mix for about one minute, until a rich and creamy foam is created. If you don't have a milk frother, try using a cocktail shaker instead to shake the mixture thoroughly.
4. Add ice cubes to the top of the glass and pour over cold milk.
5. Enjoy!




Ingredients:
150ml coffee - we recommend Douwe Egberts Cafetiere Blend
100 ml chocolate milk
Whipped Cream
Cocoa Powder

Preparation:
Heat the chocolate milk in a large mug, then add the coffee. 
Give is a stir & top with whipped cream & a dusting of cocoa powder.



You’ll need:
Tall latte glass or coffee mug
Freshly brewed Douwe Egberts coffee
Hot milk

Preparation:
Fill your mug with 1/3rd coffee, then top up with hot milk. 
Simple, but delicious!


Responsive brief/ Douwe Egberts: Coffee products

Instant coffees



Instant Pure Decaff 
Medium and well balanced
Douwe Egberts Pure Decaff is made from a blend of the finest quality beans.  These beans have been roasted using Douwe Egberts expertise and had the caffeine carefully extracted to give a medium and well balanced flavour suitable for drinking at any time of the day.



Instant Pure Gold 
Medium and well balanced flavour
Douwe Egberts Pure Gold is made from a blend of the finest quality beans. These beans have been roasted using Douwe Egberts expertise to give a medium and well balanced flavour suitable for drinking at any time of the day.


Instant Pure Indulgence 
Rich and aromatic
Douwe Egberts Pure Indulgence is made from a blend of the finest quality beans.  These beans are roasted using Douwe Egberts expertise to give a rich and aromatic flavour suitable for drinking at any time of the day.



Instant Pure Smooth 
Aromatic and rounded flavour
Douwe Egberts Pure Smooth is made from a blend of the finest quality beans. These beans have been roasted using Douwe Egberts expertise to give an aromatic and rounded flavour suitable for drinking at any time for the day.




Inspirations Brazilian Samba 
Stir your senses...
Put a spring in your step with this smooth yet exciting coffee, bursting with Latin flavour and passion. Our master roasters rated this a strength 3.



Inspirations Kenyan Sunset 
Stir your senses...
Bring a sense of African adventure to your day whilst savouring the full-bodied and exotic taste of this rich and sensual coffee, perfect for sunrise or sunset. Our master roasters rated this a Strength 4.



Inspirations Eastern Escape 
Stir your senses...
Retreat to a tranquil and peaceful place, where you can relax and unwind. The delicate aroma and  balanced blend will help you feel calm and mellow, easing you through the day. Our master roasters rated this a strength 3.



The Flavour Collective - Delicate Vanilla 
Vanilla flavour, freeze dried instant coffee
Only 2 calories per mug*
25 servings per jar
Tastes great hot or iced
Available in 3 flavours; Delicate Vanilla, Smooth Caramel and Delicate Vanilla
Relax and unwind with delectably Delicate Vanilla. Rich, smooth yet still packing an aromatic punch this classic flavour is great served hot or cold over ice. 



The Flavour Collective - Roasted Hazelnut 

Hazelnut flavour, freeze dried instant coffee
Only 2 calories per serving*
25 servings per jar
Tastes great hot or iced
Available in 3 flavours; Roasted Hazelnut, Smooth Caramel and Delicate Vanilla

Awaken the senses with this mouth-watering full-bodied flavour. This nutty delight is great for those who are after a full flavour - a perfect match with Amaretti biscuits.



The Flavour Collective - Smooth Caramel 
Caramel flavour, freeze dried instant coffee
Only 2 calories per mug*
25 servings per jar
Tastes great hot or iced
Available in 3 flavours; Smooth Caramel, Roasted Hazelnut and Delicate Vanilla
This smooth and flavoursome coffee offers a real burst of indulgence with its rich toffee aroma. It’s a little bit different from your usual cup – just crank up the caramel for a delicious everyday treat at home or at work.

Senseo




Senseo® All Day Blend 
All Day Blend gives you a sensational mug of smooth uncomplicated and aromatic coffee with a delicious crema layer.

You can also use our Mug Size pods to make two continental sized cups of coffee.

Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.



Senseo® Selections Brazil Blend 
Allow yourself to be carried away by this truly authentic coffee experience! Like wine, each coffee has its individual natural aromas and flavour.
Combined with our years of heritage and expertise, our master roasters have selected high quality 100% Arabica beans from Brazil for this special blend.

The excellent climat and fertile soil of the Sul de Minas region produce some of the finest Arabica beans in the world. This blend is mild roasted to create an aromatic coffee with delicious hints of caramel and a delicate chocolate flavour*. (*no added flavours. 100% coffee)

As with all our selections these are best drunk without milk to bring out the full flavour and aroma.



Senseo® Selections Colombia Blend 
Allow yourself to be carried away by this truly authentic coffee experience! Like wine, each coffee has its individual natural aromas and flavour.
Colombia is one of the largest coffee growing regions in the world known for its quality coffee. The abundant sun and fertile volcanic soil of the Andes mountain range give these beans their unique aroma and intense flavour.


Our master roasters have selected some of the finest Colombian beans that are washed and dark roasted to create a full flavoured coffee with a slight hint of nutty aroma (no added flavours). So sit back and enjoy this real coffee sensation .
To bring out the best this coffee is best drunk without milk.



Senseo® Original Medium Roast 
SENSEO® Medium roast is part of our Original range. Whether you want a morning wake up call, an afternoon break or an after dinner coffee, this range delivers perfectly balanced coffee to suit each occasion.
A great continental style coffee
SENSEO® Medium roast is a well-rounded and easy-to-drink coffee. Ideal for drinking throughout the day.

A great cup of coffee without the bitterness of a ground coffee.

You can either make a continental sized cup of coffee or you can use the larger pod holder and pop in two pods to make a mug size or two cups of coffee

Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.  



Senseo® Original Dark Roast 
SENSEO® Dark roast is part of our Original range. Whether you want a morning wake up call, an afternoon break or an after dinner coffee, this range delivers perfectly balanced coffee to suit each occasion.
A continental style coffee with a bit more bite to it

SENSEO® Dark roast is an authentically rich and aromatic coffee with a distinctive longer roasted character. Great to start the day or give you an extra Kick to keep going without any of the bitterness you normally get in coffee.

You can either make a continental sized cup of coffee or you can use the larger pod holder and pop in two pods to make a mug size or two cups of coffee.

Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.




Senseo® original Decaf 
Enjoy decaf any time any day
SENSEO® Decaf is part of our Original range. Whether you want a morning wake up call, an afternoon break or an after dinner coffee, this range delivers perfectly balanced coffee to suit each occasion.
Try this classic and be surprised by its taste. SENSEO® Decaf has the same great taste as our Medium coffee but without the caffeine.

This coffee has a consistent body with a rich taste to enjoy any time of day.

You can either make a continental sized cup of coffee or you use the larger pod holder and pop in two pods to make a mug size or two cups of coffee.

Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.

Do try it.



Senseo® Moments Morning Americano 
Our Senseo moments range has been specially created by our master blenders to suit your different coffee needs throughout the week.
Get ready for the day ahead with Morning Americano. The beans for this blend have been specially selected and then longer roasted, creating a spicy, refreshing coffee with a rich and intense aroma.

Morning Americano will kick start your day or keep you going whenever you need a pick-me-up.

The new Moments range comes in mug size only. You can use 1 pod to make 2 cups or 1 mug.
Top Tip: Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.



Senseo® Moments Easy Weekend 
Our Senseo moments range has been specially created by our master blenders to suit your different coffee needs throughout the week.
Drift into a daydream, enjoy a long weekend or relax at the end of a busy day with Easy Weekend.  The beans for this blend have been carefully selected and then roasted gently creating a medium to dark coffee with a great aroma.

Indulgent and aromatic to relax and take a moment to yourself.

All Moments come in mug size. You can use one pod to make 2 cups or 1 mug of coffee.

Top Tip: Pre-heat your milk in a microwave or a pot to keep your coffee warmer.



One cup filters



Gourmet blend One Cup Filters 
Douwe Egberts individual ground coffee filters are a quick & easy way to prepare a delicious, freshly brewed cup of coffee.  All you need is a kettle!  Our gourmet coffee filters are blended using medium roasted beans for a full, well-balanced flavour.



Arabica Gold One Cup Filters 
Douwe Egberts individual ground coffee filters are a quick & easy way to prepare a delicious, freshly brewed cup of coffee.  All you need is a kettle!  Our arabica gold coffee filters use rich roasted beans for a delicious, aromatic flavour.



Velvet Blend One Cup Filters 
Douwe Egberts individual ground coffee filters are a quick & easy way to prepare a delicious, freshly brewed cup of coffee.  All you need is a kettle!  Our Velvet blend coffee filters use Arabica beans sourced from Colombia's Andean mountain ranges, enhanced by beans from more of the world's premier coffee growing areas.  Carefully selected, dark roasted & blended by our master roaster for a smooth yet powerful flavour: delicious, rich & aromatic.




Reserve blend One Cup Filters 
Douwe Egberts individual ground coffee filters are a quick & easy way to prepare a delicious, freshly brewed cup of coffee.  All you need is a kettle!  Our Reserve blend coffee filters use 100% Arabica beans from some of the world's finest coffee growing areas.  Specially selected, roasted & blended for that distinctive Italian taste: intense, strong & full-bodied, with a hint of spiciness.

Roast and ground 



Douwe Egberts Cafetiere Blend 
Douwe Egberts Cafetiere Blend is a blend of the finest quality beans from around the world.  Medium roasted for a full flavour & smooth taste our Master Blenders have developed this coffee specifically for use in Cafetieres.



Douwe Egberts Filter Blend 
Douwe Egberts Filter Blend is a blend of the finest quality beans from around the world.  Medium roasted for a full flavour & smooth taste our Master Blenders have developed this coffee specifically for use in Filter machines.



Douwe Egberts House Blend 

The iconic House Blend is the perfect coffee to enjoy every day, for any occasion. Douwe Egberts master blenders have selected the finest beans to create this classic, smooth and full-bodied European-style blend. Strength 3.




Douwe Egberts Cafe Milano 
A classic Italian-style coffee that evokes the flavours of Milan. Douwe Egberts experts have created a smooth, laid-back blend with a hint of spice, perfect to relax and escape with. Strength 3.



Douwe Egberts Flavourful Decaff 
Bursting with rich flavor and aroma, Douwe Egberts don’t believe in compromising on taste. The finest beans are gently decaffeinated, then expertly blended and roasted to ensure a smooth and full-bodied coffee with hints of vanilla and chocolate. Strength 3.



Douwe Egberts Time Together 
The perfect coffee to enjoy with friends. Douwe Egberts master blenders have created a deliciously spicy blend with a hint of vanilla and nut, perfect to enjoy with good company and great conversation. Strength 4.



Douwe Egberts Morning Americano 
A vibrant blend of the finest beans, bursting with a nutty flavor and zing. This full-bodied and robust coffee provides the morning boost needed to start the day. Strength 5.



Douwe Egberts Morning Americano 
A vibrant blend of the finest beans, bursting with a nutty flavor and zing. This full-bodied and robust coffee provides the morning boost needed to start the day. Strength 5.

Source:http://www.douwe-egberts.co.uk/Products