Thursday, 11 October 2012

Lecture 1 - Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis
- The development of the psyche from birth
- The development and the role of the unconscious in our everyday lives
- The development of gender identity
- Understanding the complexities of human subjectivity

- Not just a form of therapy, a theory of the mind and a a model based theory that can be applied to other objects and processes
- Understanding dreams, desire and motivation
- We are the human subjects (social order)
- We are not entirely controlled by logical and reasonable thought
- Psychology has been adopted by psycho therapist, artists, designer and advertisers

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, 1921

- Psychotherapist- used the term hysteria
- Hysteria patients are patients that suffer from physical symptoms relating to their repressed issues
- Dreams - analysed the terms of the hidden associations
- How the dreams referred to what was happening in their conscious lives

The dynamic unconscious
- Contains all the things we are not supposed to think, feel, do
- Created in the development of the psyche to contain all the subconscious ideas
- The unconscious is chaos, and does have a certain connection with the conscious
- Makes its self present through slips and ticks (freudian slip) - accidentally say some, not what you planned to say (sometimes sexual content)
- The unconscious doesn't control you but it does appear at times

Stages of development
- Infant needs to learn about its body, way of thinking, understanding of surroundings
- Development of people is with misunderstanding, oral, anal and phallic stages
- Missinterpretations
- Identity, sexuality

Psycho- sexual identity
- The identity we assume is through our development as a person, observation of others
- Oedipus complex - sexual/ love feelings towards mother and resentment of father, not insect, its a mixture of different of emotions through development.
- Inseparable link between mother and child
- Feelings of love, rivalry, jealousy, all mixed, confusing mixture of feeling ''to be wanted' and 'wanting'
- Development of both masculine and feminine identities in relation to the penis/ phanllus
- Boys and girls experience confusion of castration
- The penis has a positive symbol of power
- The infant must overcome these issues in order to be healthy, happy and a positive being
- Paranoia and self consciousness are born from this, and can have an affect on us

The uncanny
- 'Unhomely'
- Something which is simultaneously unnatural yet familiar
- Soem thing that is supposed to remain hidden, a sense of unease
- The surrealists use the uncanny to create painting or objects which possess elements of the uncanny
- Id, ego and super ego

Unconscious, preconscious and conscious
Conscious level - thoughts, perceptions
Preconscious - memories, stored knowledge
Conscious - shameful, sexual desires

Id - represents the biological and instinctual part of ourselves
Ego - the individual and personality of ourselves
Super ego - part of ourselves thats in relation to others, social order and language

Jacques Lacan

- Freud created the science of psychoanalysis, logical, whereas Lacan was very complicated
- Difficult to understand his theories
- The point he was making the having multiple ideas and meanings is that human psyche is complex and not one word answers
- After freud had died, psychoanalysis got confusing
- Lacan the re-conceptualised Freud's finding through the theoretical model of structural linguistics - semiotics

The mirror stage
- The child recognising them self in objects or other people
- Identification of the self in and out side of the self
- Can cause a sense of loss between mother and child
- The o is created as a means to try and cover up this gap, conscious self is continuously trying to fill this gap by creating a personality
- Captation - is the state in which the child feel when it learns its own images, fascinated by its own reflection (psychical body and sense of one self)
- Thoughtful and awkward feeling/ questions when met with our self out side the self

Lacan unconscious
- 'structured like a language'
- The connection between conscious and unconscious is in related to language and concept
- The unconscious is the discourse of the Other (O -ther, super ego, outside of ourselves)

Metaphor/ Metonymy
Symptom
Desire

Lacanian Phallus
- As a concept, is not a biological penis
- It becomes a symbol of identity, difference and lack
- We all experience lack
- The phallis provides us with the speaking position in culture, within the symbolic order
- The phallus related to the signifying meaning in language
- Its a symbol of power and identity
- The role of the phallus is diverse and complex

The orders of reality
The real:
Cannot be symbolised/ signified
Most basic, animal selves

The imaginary:
The ego operates, creates identity for ourselves and other people

The symbolic:
The order of the other

Psychoanalysis and art criticism/ theory
Subjectivity:
What it is to be a human being, motivations, desires and the unconscious
To help us understand why things are the way they are
To helo us understand artists/ designers motivation for creating

Model based theory/ paradigm:
Models provide a tool for categorising or breaking down individual and groups of art and design

Edward Bernays

- The god father of 'PR' - Freud's nephew
- He applied knowledge of psychoanalysis, unconscious desire to advertising and PR campaigns
- Applying manipulation techniques, revolutionised advertising
- Freud and Bernays believed that other people needed to be controlled in order to have social order
- Case study 'torches of freedom'

Max Ernst


- Surreal artist
- Allowed collage to manipulate the work, providing an automation observation

Louise Bourgeois - Spiral woman 1952

Contradiction between masculinity and femininity

Conclusion
- How to use psychoanalysis in your own work, or imbed the ideas.
- Provides us a definition of subject hood outside of logic and rationality
- A tool to help understand meanings of art and design.

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