Friday, 9 November 2012

What is design for print: Types of paper

Paper definitions:

Bank paper is a thin strong writing paper of less than 50g/m2 commonly used for typewriting and correspondence.

Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant, mainly used for artistic purposes, or paper made from banana fiber, obtained from an industrialized process, from the stem and the non-utilizable fruits. This paper can be either handmade or made by industrialized machine.

Bond paper is a high quality durable writing paper similar to bank paper but having a weight greater than 50 g/m2. The name comes from it having originally been made for documents such as government bonds. It is now used for letterheads, other stationery and as paper for electronic printers. Widely employed for graphic work involving pencil, pen and felt-tip marker, bond paper can sometimes contain rag fibre pulp, which produces a stronger, though rougher, sheet of paper.

book paper (or publishing paper) is a paper that is designed specifically for the publication of printed booksTraditionally, book papers are off-white or low-white papers (easier to read), are opaque to minimise the show-through of text from one side of the page to the other, and are (usually) made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case-bound books. Typically, books papers are light-weight papers 60 to 90 g/m² and often specified by their caliper/substance ratios (volume basis). For example, a bulky 80 g/m² paper may have a caliper of 120 micrometres (0.12 mm) which would be Volume 15 (120×10/80), whereas a low bulk 80 g/m² may have a caliper of 88 micrometres, giving a volume 11. This volume basis then allows the calculation of a book's PPI (printed pages per inch), which is an important factor for the design of book jackets and the binding of the finished book.

Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a compound to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency. Kaolinite or calcium carbonate are used to coat paper for high quality printing used in packaging industry and in magazines. The chalk or china clay is bound to the paper with synthetic viscofiers, such as styrene-butadiene latexes and natural organic binders such as starch. The coating formulation may also contain chemical additives as dispersants, resins, PE: to give water resistance and wet strength to the paper, or to protect against ultravioletradiation.

Construction paper (sugar paper) is a tough, coarse, colored paper. The texture is slightly rough, and the surface is unfinished. Due to the source material, mainly wood pulp, small particles are visible on the paper’s surface. It is used for projects or crafts.

Cotton paper is made from cotton linters or cotton from used cloths (rags) as the primary material source, hence the name rag paper. Cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-basedpaper, which may contain high concentrations of acids.

Electronic papere-paper and electronic ink are display technologies which are designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional backlit flat panel displays which emit light, electronic paper displays reflect light like ordinary paper, making it more comfortable to read, and the surface has a wider viewing angle than conventional displays. The contrast ratio in available displays as of 2008 might be described as similar to that of newspaper, though newly developed displays are slightly better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade.

Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts. It is hygroscopic and so must be treated with paraffin for use in moist environments. Some fish papers incorporate mica layers to increase the dielectric strength while still giving good mechanical strength.

Inkjet paper is a special fine paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weightbrightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.

Kraft paper or kraft is paper or paperboard (cardboard) produced from chemical pulp produced in the kraft process. Pulp produced by the kraft process is stronger than that made by other pulping processes; acidic sulfite processes degrade cellulose more, leading to weaker fibers, and mechanical pulping processes leave most of the lignin with the fibers, whereas kraft pulping removes most of the lignin present originally in the wood. Low lignin is important to the resulting strength of the paper as the hydrophobic nature of lignin interferes with the formation of the hydrogen bonds between cellulose (and hemicellulose) in the fibers.

Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process. In the 19th century its use diminished as it was largely supplanted bywove paper. Laid paper is still commonly used by artists as a support for charcoal drawings.

Parchment is a thin material made from hide; often calfskinsheepskin or goatskin, and often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a bookcodex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned; therefore, it is very reactive to changes in relative humidity and is not waterproof. Finer-quality parchment is called vellum.

Mummy paper is paper that is claimed to be made from the linen wrappings and other fibers (e.g. papyrus) from Egyptian mummies imported to America circa 1855. The existence of this paper has not been conclusively confirmed, but it has been widely discussed.

Sandpaper, also known as glasspaper, is a heavy paper with abrasive material attached to its surface.

Tyvek is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of DuPont. The material is very strong; it is difficult to tear but can easily be cut with scissors or a knife. Water vapor can pass through Tyvek (highly breathable), but not liquid water, so the material lends itself to a variety of applications: envelopes, car covers, air and water intrusion barriers (housewrap) under house siding, labelswristbandsmycology, andgraphics. Tyvek is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Tyvex."

Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. It is usually sold in rolls and is put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come plain (so that it can be painted), textured (such as Anaglypta), or with patterned graphics.

Washi is a style of paper that was first made in Japan. Washi is commonly made using fibers from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia chrysantha), or the paper mulberry, but also can be made using bamboohemprice, and wheatWashi comes from wa meaning Japanese and shimeaning paper, and the term is used to describe paper made by hand in the traditional manner.

Waterproof paper is good for extreme outdoor, marine, field use and general wet environments. Often designed especially for printing topographic maps. It is normally durable and tear-resistant.

Wax paper (waxed paper), also known as paraffin paper, is paper that is made moisture-proof through the application of wax.

Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked. The papermaking mould's wires run parallel to each other to produce laid paper, but they are woven together into a fine wire mesh for wove paper. 

Xuan paper, or Shuen paper or rice paper, is a kind of paper originating in ancient China used for writing and painting. Xuan paper is renowned for being soft and fine textured, suitable for conveying the artistic expression of both Chinese calligraphy and painting.


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